Emojicode Documentation 1.0 beta 2

Types and Namespaces


Emojicode uses namespaces to avoid problems with equally named types. If you, for instance, defined a type called 🌽 and you needed to import another package, which exports a type named 🌽 too, there would be a problem. To prevent this, you can import the package into another namespace.

In Emojicode types are not members of namespaces, but are available through namespaces. This also implies that a type may be reachable through several namespaces. The name of a namespace is always an emoji.

By default, that is when you specify no namespace, you access types through the namespace 🏠. You do this all the time, for instance when declaring a variable of string type:

πŸ–πŸ†• text πŸ”‘

When writing only πŸ”‘ the compiler assumes that the type is in the default namespace 🏠.

You can, of course, explicitly refer to a type in a namespace using the namespace accessor πŸ”Ά:

πŸ–πŸ†• text πŸ”ΆπŸ πŸ”‘

This denotes that we want the type πŸ”‘ reachable in the namespace 🏠.

This syntax can be used everywhere a type is expected. For example, to instantiate the type πŸ’‰ in the namespace πŸ₯, we would use:


Namespacing When Declaring a Type

By default, when you declare a type it will be available through the default namespace 🏠. It is possible to specify another namespace with the namespace accessor though:

πŸ‡ πŸ”ΆπŸ¨πŸ‘©β€πŸ’Ό πŸ‡


This declares a class πŸ‘©β€πŸ’Ό that will be reachable through the namespace 🏨.

Type Expectations

Emojicode uses so-called type expectations for type inference. Whenever an expression, whose type is determined by type inference, is evaluated, type expectations are considered to determine the type. This mainly concerns literals.

When you call a method, for instance, the types of the parameters become type expectations. If, for example, you defined a method that takes one argument of type πŸ”‘ and you call that method, the first argument will be expected to be a string. Another example would be a variable assignment. If you have declared a variable of a certain type, the compiler will expect this type when assigning to the variable.

Built-In Types

These types are built right into the language and are not defined in any package.

βšͺ Something

βšͺ is special as all types are compatible to it. This means that you can, for instance, store a value of any type into a variable of type βšͺ:

πŸ–πŸ†• surprise βšͺ
πŸ”€Anything, anything, anythingπŸ”€ ➑️ πŸ–surprise
1004 ➑️ πŸ–surprise

You cannot call any methods on βšͺ and you cannot cast to βšͺ at run-time.

πŸ”΅ Someobject

All instances of classes are compatible to πŸ”΅, but value type instances are not.

◼️ No Return

◼️ represents the return type of a method or closure that returns nothing. It has no use other than that.

πŸ”² Type Casting

Type casting is a way to determine whether a value is of a given type at run-time and to treat the value as an instance of this type.

Type casting is implemented with the πŸ”² statement:

cast ⟢ πŸ”² expression type-expr

value is the value to be casted to type. If value can be casted to type value is returned as type. If value can’t be casted to type no value is returned. πŸ”² therefore returns an optional.

πŸ”² txt πŸ”‘  πŸ’­ Tries to cast txt to πŸ”‘
πŸ”² a 🐟  πŸ’­ Tries to cast a to 🐟
πŸ”² b πŸ₯ πŸšπŸ₯žπŸšπŸ¦‘πŸšπŸ¬πŸ₯žπŸšπŸ”‘πŸ†πŸ†πŸ†πŸ”’πŸ’―πŸ†  πŸ’­ Tries to cast b to πŸ₯ πŸšπŸ₯žπŸšπŸ¦‘πŸšπŸ¬πŸ₯žπŸšπŸ”‘πŸ†πŸ†πŸ†πŸ”’πŸ’―πŸ†

Don’t confuse type casting with type conversion. You can’t cast πŸ”’ to πŸ’―. You need to use a suitable conversion method instead.

βš–οΈ Size of Type Instance

The βš–οΈ expression allows you to determine the number of bytes an instance of a provided type will take up at runtime:

size-of ⟢ βš–οΈ type

The following, for example, prints the size of an integer.

πŸ˜€ πŸ”‘ βš–οΈπŸ”’ ❗️❗️


type-expr ⟢ ⚫️ | type-from-expr | type | this
type ⟢ [🍬] [✴️] type-main | 🚨 type type | βšͺ | ◼️
type-main ⟢ variable | callable-type | type-identifier generic-arguments
type-main ⟢ 🍱 types 🍱 | πŸ”΅ | type-value
type-identifier ⟢ πŸ”Ά type-emoji type-emoji | type-emoji
types ⟢ type types | type
type-emoji ⟢ οΏ’βšͺ οΏ’πŸ”΅ ᅭ🍬 ᅭ🍱 οΏ’πŸ”Ά emoji-id
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